Armes Antichar Britanniques

Types de Projectiles et leur Capacité de Pénétration de Blindage

Char léger Mk.VII, Tetrarch Mk.I

Char léger Mk.VII, Tetrarch Mk.I sporting le camouflage de deux couleurs de 1944. Only 171 of these véhicules were produced from 1940-1942, of which 20 were supplied a l’Armée Rouge Soviétique. Chars légers Tetrarch saw action avec le Régiment de Reconnaissance Blindé de la 6e Division Aéroportée Britannique en Normandy, et during the Rhine crossings. One squadron participated in the invasion of Madagascar en 1942. The Hamilcar glider was specifically designed to carry un char léger Tetrarch into action. Le véhicule est de la collection de Patrick Storto, who completed the MMS 1/76 scale metal kit as a C.S. (close support) version, adding a spare fuel drum et a Bren MG mounted on the turret side.

The table lists armour penetration values for armes antichar d’infanterie britannique as well as canons britanniques at 0 to 100 meters range et 0 degrees inclination of armour. Dates indicate the year when a particular shell type entered production, not necessarily the year of availability to combat units. New shell types would take several months to reach the troops at the front, some favoured units receiving the new shells more quickly than others. Andrew Mark Reid is the author of Panzergranate, a set of miniature wargame rules using carefully researched gunnery data to simulate armour penetration results.

Fusils Antichar et Mitrailleuses Projectile Pénétration
7.62 mm Lee Enfield 0.303 Inch Rifle "K" Bullet 13 mm
7.62 mm Vickers 0.303 Inch L.M.G., H.M.G. "K" Bullet 13 mm
12.7 mm Vickers 0.50 Inch H.M.G. A.P. 25 mm
12.7 mm Vickers 0.50 Inch H.M.G. A.P./I. (Incendiary) 22 mm
13 mm Boys 0,55 Inch Fusil Antichar A.P. 21 mm
15 mm Besa H.M.G. A.P. 29 mm
Engins Antichar, Lance-Roquettes Projectile Pénétration
Grenade No 68 H.E.A.T. (Munroe) 89 mm
The No 68 was based on une idée suisse to use the well documented Munroe effect for armour penetration. The No. 68 had a shaped charge avec 5.5 ounces of explosive.
Grenade, Hand, Antichar No 74 Chemical (Thermide) 42 mm
The Sticky Bomb was rejected by the Army in the U.K. as being too dangerous for use by troops so it was issued to the Home Guard instead. Anyone who has seen the film Dad’s Army may recall that the main hazard was the Bomb’s ability to stick to the user’s trousers, which then gave the user 7 seconds in which to remove his trousers, et remove himself to a safe distance.
P.I.A.T. H.E.A.T. (Munroe) 85 mm
Le P.I.A.T. (Projector Infantry Anti-Tank) britannique was different from Bazooka et Panzerschreck rocket projectors, Panzerfaust et RPG, in that it developed no backblast. The weapon had a spring operated firing mechanism which actually hurled the bomb instead of using a propellant to fire it. Le P.I.A.T. could be fired safely from a building ou similar enclosure, et it would not betray its firing position as easily as the Panzerfaust. If the P.I.A.T. misfired, the spring could be difficult to re-cock manually.
Canons de Chars et Antichar Projectile Pénétration
20 mm L.65 Breda AA/AT-Gun A.P. 36 mm
L.R.D.G. et S.A.S. raiders britanniques used canons Breda italiens capturés to arm véhicules.
20 mm L.72.4 Polsten (Centurion Mk.I) A.P./T. 40 mm
20 mm L.85 Hispano (Hurricane Ftr.) A.P. 47 mm
20 mm L.110 Oerlikon 1 Pdr. A.P. & A.P./T. 62 mm
Le canon antichar Oerlikon 1 Pdr. was mounted on leaf sprung tracks en service britannique in order to be towed behind Carden Loyd T.9 tracked carriers et Mk.I Universal carriers. The weapon was withdrawn from active duty en 1938 when the 2 Pdr. became available. It was again issued to some Home Guard units during 1940 in preperation for the l’invasion allemande that never came. It also served as a antichar gunnery range trainer throughout the war. The weapon had no shield fitted.
Canon Antichar de 25 mm L.77 Hotchkiss A.P. 54 mm
Un canon antichar français used by the BEF en France et Norway. Many were left behind at Dunkirk. The weapon offered less armour penetration than the 20 mm Oerlikon, et it was taken out of service when ammunition supplies ran out.
28 mm schwere Panzerbüchse 41 A.P.S.V./A.P.S.B. 94 mm
L.R.D.G. et S.A.S. raiders britanniques are known to have used Panzerbüchse fusils antichars allemands capturés to arm some of their véhicules.
40 mm L.52. 2 Pdr. A.P./T. 84 mm
40 mm L.52. 2 Pdr. avec Little John A.P.S.V. (1943) 103 mm
The Little John squeeze bore attachment was designed to increase the velocity et armour penetration of the 2 Pdr gun. It was introduced when the 2 Pdr was already obsolete. Automitrailleuses et chars légers which could not be upgraded to a larger gun, received the Little John attachment to keep them in service a while longer. When the 6th Airborne Armoured Recce Regiment landed in France en 1944 most of their gliderborne chars Tetrach were equipped avec Little Johns.
40 mm L.60 Bofors Flak (1933) A.P. & A.P./T. 100 mm
40 mm L.70 Bofors Flak A.P. & A.P./T. 117 mm
47 mm L.23. 3 Pdr. A.P.H.E. (1928) 27 mm
47 mm L.23. 3 Pdr. A.P./T. (1937) 40 mm
Le canon de 47 mm 3 pounder était l’armement principal du char Vickers 6 Tonner B. which served avec l’Armée Bolivienne pendant la Guerre du Chaco en 1933, and, in limited numbers, avec l’Armée Chinoise during the Japanese invasion. L’Armée Finlandaise deployed the 6 Tonner pendant la Guerre d’Hiver contre la Russie en 1938, but the entire unit seems to have been knocked out ou destroyed in their first attack. Recovered véhicules were converted to self-propelled guns, mounting l’obusier de 127 mm britannique in an improvised turret. These véhicules were used in the indirect fire support role, et as direct fire assault guns. Several of them survived the war, et se trouvent en musées finlandais aujourd’hui.
47 mm L.31. 3 Pdr. A.P.H.E. (1928) 36 mm
47 mm L.31. 3 Pdr. A.P./T. (1937) 54 mm
47 mm L.41. 3 Pdr. A.P.H.E. (1928) 48 mm
47 mm L.41. 3 Pdr. A.P./T. (1937) 72 mm
Le 47 mm L.41. 3 Pdr. était un canon antichar tracté which was replaced in frontline use by the 2 Pdr. gun. However, the 3 Pdr. remained in service in 1940 for home invasion defence, et there is footage showing the weapon on maneuvers. Les affûts des canons antichar QF 2 pounder et 3 pounder were similar in appearance.
57 mm L.23. 6 Pdr. A.P.H.E. (1916) 32 mm
57 mm L.45. 6 Pdr. (canon de char) A.P./T. (1941) 84 mm
57 mm L.45. 6 Pdr. (canon de char) A.P.C.B.C. (1943) 106 mm
Le canon de char et antichar QF 6 pounder listed below did not have H.E. shells issued for them. This meant that these canons could not be used for close defence against infantry ou provide fire support during assaults. Why this was, nobody knows, but there are accounts of équipages de canon antichar britanniques making their own case shells for close defence against infantry assault. This was done by removing the A.P. shell head, filling the cartridge avec a suitable piece of cloth, filling the shell case avec stones et gravel, et sealing it avec another piece of cloth ou encasing the shrapnel content in thick axle grease. This tactic was quickly improvised au course de la campagne en Afrique du Nord, et there is some indication that tank crews employed it avec the 6 Pdr. L.45 as well.
57 mm L.50. 6 Pdr. (canon antichar) A.P./T. (1941) 94 mm
57 mm L.50. 6 Pdr. (canon antichar) A.P.C.B.C. (1942) 118 mm
75 mm L.40. 10 Pdr. (canon de char) A.P./T. (1943) 115 mm
75 mm L.40. 10 Pdr. (canon de char) A.P.C.B.C. (1944) 124 mm
Le canon 10 pounder était une adaptation du canon antichar QF 6 pounder, designed to fire the ammunition of the US M3 75 mm gun. It was mounted in chars Churchill et A.27M Cromwell.
75 mm L.56 Flak A.P./T. 140 mm
76,2 mm L.58. 17 Pdr. (A.T. & T.G.) A.P./T. (1943) 146 mm
76,2 mm L.58. 17 Pdr. (A.T. & T.G.) A.P.C.B.C. (1943) 179 mm
76,2 mm L.58. 17 Pdr. (A.T. & T.G.) A.P.D.S. (1945) 253 mm
77 mm L.50. 17 Pdr. (Canon de char Comet) A.P./T. (1944) 125 mm
77 mm L.50. 17 Pdr. (Canon de char Comet) A.P.C.B.C. (1944) 154 mm
77 mm L.50. 17 Pdr. (Canon de char Comet) A.P.D.S. (1945) 218 mm
84 mm L.64. 20 Pdr. (Centurion Mk.II) A.P.C.B.C. (1946) 217 mm
84 mm L.64. 20 Pdr. (Centurion Mk.II) A.P.D.S. (1946) 307 mm
88 mm L.28.8. 25 Pdr. (A.T. & F.G.) A.P./T. (1939) 94 mm
94 mm L.18. 18 Pdr. (Field Gun) A.P.H.E. (1916) 42 mm
94 mm L.18. 18 Pdr. (Field Gun) A.P. (1931) 62 mm
The 18 Pdr was mounted in A.13.C.S. (Close Support) versions of the Christee cruiser tank. There were also a few chars Crusader built to this specification for a similar purpose. Le canon de campagne 18 Pdr. was used dans le rôle de tir antichar directe pendant la bataille de la défense de Singapore. It is recorded that chars légers Type 95 japonais were successfully defeated by these canons using armour piercing shells during an attempt to rush a defensive position. Le canon 18 Pdr. était le seul arme antichar available at the time.
94 mm L.50. 3.7 Inch Flak A.P.H.E. (1933) 117 mm
94 mm L.50. 3.7 Inch Flak A.P./T. (1944) 194 mm

Many of the canons et chars built in the 1920s et 1930s were employed in Abyssinia (Ethiopia), some even served in the front line defences of Tobruk, Afrique du Nord. Chars moyens Vickers 1928 from General Hobart’s pre-war outpost army were dug in to provide static antichar defenses there. Their canons 3 pounder de 47 mm proved inadequate contre les chars allemands, but they could still knock out the lightly armoured chars italiens.

Andy Reid

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Figurines Britanniques de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale