Armes Antichar Finlandaises

Types de Projectiles et leur Capacité de Pénétration de Blindage

Char léger T-26 soviétique

L'Armée Finlandaise used a lot of canons et véhicules soviétiques capturés, of which le char léger T-26 was one of the more numerous types taken in battle. This model du T-26 soviétique is de la collection de Patrick Storto.

The table lists armour penetration values pour canons Finlandais at 0 to 100 meters range et 0 degrees inclination of armour. Dates indicate the year when a particular shell type entered production, not necessarily the year of availability to combat units. New shell types would take several months to reach the troops at the front, some favoured units receiving the new shells more quickly than others. Andrew Mark Reid is the author of Panzergranate, a set of miniature wargame rules using carefully researched gunnery data to simulate armour penetration results.

Arme Projectile Pénétration
13 mm Boys 0,55 Inch Fusil Antichar A.P. 21 mm
La Grande Bretagne supplied a large number of fusils antichar Boys en 1939 et 1940. The weapon was popular avec les Finlandais, because it could deal avec chars T-26 soviétiques which les Finlandais encountered in many engagements.
13.2 mm H.M.G. A.P. 29 mm
Armement principal de l'automitrailleuse Landsverk 182 purchased de la Suède. Apparently, this Landsverk 182 was ordered without its 20 Madsen gun, et fitted avec a locally produced 13.2 mm HMG. The véhicule was phased out en 1941.
20 mm VKT Lahti L-39 AT-rifle A.P. 38 mm
It appears to be similar in size au fusil antichar Solothurn suisse de 20 mm still produced today as an anti-helicopter sniping weapon. Both are self-loading, et les versions de la Seconde Guerre mondiale would have been magazine fed.
20 mm L.60 Madsen (Danois) A.P. 34 mm
20 mm L.112.5 FlaK 30/38 A.P.H.E. (Pz.Gr.)
20 mm L.112.5 FlaK 30/38 A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39)
20 mm L.112.5 FlaK 30/38 A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 110 mm
Canon Antichar de 25 mm (français) A.P. 50 ou 54 mm
It is not known if these were canons antichar Hotchkiss ou Puteaux, the latter had the higher performance of the two.
Canon de char de 37 mm L.21 Sa.18 Puteaux A.P. (Rupture M.1916) 27 mm
Canon de char de 37 mm L.21 Sa.18 Puteaux A.P. (Rupture M.1927) 31 mm
Chars Vickers 6 Tonner purchased de la Grande-Bretagne were originally fitted avec 37 mm Puteaux, but later received canons de 37 mm Bofors instead.
37 mm L.37 Bofors Canon de Char & Antichar A.P. (Carbon Steel) 32 mm
37 mm L.37 Bofors Canon de Char & Antichar A.P. (Manganese Steel) 54 mm
37 mm L.37 Bofors Canon de Char & Antichar A.P.H.E. 34 mm
It is unlikely that the A.P.H.E. shell would have been used, even though it was available for the 37 mm Bofors L.37 gun. Some A.P.H.E. shells are tracer detonated, but most are detonated by inertia et they are used as anti-aircraft shells. Their use against chars may have been out of accident rather than design. Navies use A.P.H.E. shells against enemy ships, et their application to tank combat may have been a throwback to this naval method.

Le canon de 37 mm Bofors was used comme armement principal du char Vickers 6 Tonner which l'Armée Finlandaise purchased de la Grande-Bretagne. L'Armée Finlandaise deployed the 6 Tonner pendant la Guerre d'Hiver contre la Russie en 1939-40, but the entire unit seems to have been knocked out ou destroyed in their first attack at Honkasalmi en 1940. Recovered véhicules were upgunned avec canons antichar de 45 mm soviétiques capturés.

37 mm L.45 PaK 35/36 (Allemand) A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 65 mm
37 mm L.45 PaK 35/36 (Allemand) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 79 mm
45 mm L.46 M.1938 Canon Antichar (Soviétique) A.P.H.E. (1941) 52 mm
45 mm L.46 M.1938 Canon Antichar (Soviétique) H.V.A.P. (1942) 64 mm
45 mm L.46 M.1938 Canon Antichar (Soviétique) A.P.D.S. (1945) 96 mm
Le canon de 45 mm L.46 était l'armement principal des chars T-26, T-50, T-70, BT-5, et BT-7 soviétiques capturés, as well as automitrailleuses BA-10 et BA-32. Surviving chars Vickers 6 Tonner received this weapon as well.
45 mm L.66 M.1941 Canon Antichar Soviétique A.P.H.E. (1941) 74 mm
45 mm L.66 M.1941 Canon Antichar Soviétique H.V.A.P. (1942) 102 mm
45 mm L.66 M.1941 Canon Antichar Soviétique A.P.D.S. (1945) 138 mm
47 mm L.35.8 Breda 47/32 M35 AT-Gun (Ital.) A.P. 64 mm
Twelve of these were available pendant la Guerre d'Hiver.
50 mm L.60 PaK 38 (Allemand) A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 99 mm
50 mm L.60 PaK 38 (Allemand) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 141 mm
Only a dozen PaK 38 were purchased de l'Allemagne.
75 mm L.36.3 Puteaux M.1897 Field Gun A.P. 90 mm
The famous "75" français de la Première Guerre mondiale, designated 75 mm K.97 en service finlandais. Les Finlandais sent 48 de ces canons à l'Allemagne, to have them converted to PaK 97/38, of which 45 upgraded units were returned later.
75 mm L.36.3 PaK 97/38 (f) A.P. (Pz.Gr.) 90 mm
75 mm L.36.3 PaK 97/38 (f) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 128 mm
Converted Puteaux PaK 97/38 used obus français et allemands. Apparently, les Allemands considered these canons adequate for antichar work. No wartime shell production was set up for PaK 97/38 en Finlande.
75 mm L.48 KwK 39 (Allemand) A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 144 mm
75 mm L.48 KwK 39 (Allemand) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 172 mm
Armement principal du char Panzer IV Ausf. J, et du canon automoteur StuG. 40 Ausf. G purchased de l'Allemagne. The StuGs arrived en 1943, but the Panzer IVs came too late to participate in the Continuation War en 1944. Panzer IV were deployed pendant la Guerre de Laponie, but they saw no action.
75 mm L.46 PaK 40 (Allemand) A.P. (1940) 149 mm
75 mm L.46 PaK 40 (Allemand) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 176 mm
PaK 40 was the most common canon antichar allemand en service finlandais.
76,2 mm L.16.5 M.1927 Infantry Gun (Soviétique) A.P.H.E. (Any Year) 38 mm
76,2 mm L.24 M.1930 Field Gun (Soviétique) A.P.H.E. (Any Year) 58 mm
A modernized version of the Czarist canon de campagne de 76,2 mm L.26 M.1902 Putilov, it was used comme armement principal du char BT-8 et T-28.B.
76,2 mm L.54 ZIS.3 Canon Antichar (Soviétique) A.P.H.E. (1941) 104 mm
76,2 mm L.54 ZIS.3 Canon Antichar (Soviétique) H.V.A.P. (1942) 133 mm
76,2 mm L.54 ZIS.3 Canon Antichar (Soviétique) A.P.D.S. (1945) 191 mm
114 mm (4.5 Inch) L.16/L.18 Howitzer (Brit.) H.E.A.T. approx. 50 mm
114 mm (4.5 Inch) L.16/L.18 Howitzer (Brit.) C.P.H.E. (Gr. 39 Hl/C) 128 mm
A.P.H.E. is effective against bunkers, et was only intended for this purpose until chars appeared au course de la Première Guerre mondiale. The howitzer was used to convert chars BT-7 soviétiques capturés en canons automoteur, designated BT-42 en service finlandais. In their first real engagement, huit chars BT-42 were destroyed, et the others were subsequently withdrawn from combat to be scrapped. Early H.E.A.T. rounds for this weapon were locally produced, et found to useless. A later H.E.A.T. round existed which may have used le 105 mm Gr. 39 Hl/C warhead allemand.
122 mm L.23 M.1930 Howitzer (Soviétique) A.P.H.E. (1941) 73 mm
122 mm L.23 M.1930 Howitzer (Soviétique) H.V.A.P. (1942) 102 mm
122 mm L.23 M.1930 Howitzer (Soviétique) A.P.D.S. (1945) 131 mm
122 mm L.23 M.1930 Howitzer (Soviétique) H.E.A.T. (1944) 200 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 M.1938 (Soviétique) A.P.H.E. (1941) 145 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 M.1938 (Soviétique) C.P.H.E. (1941) 124 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 M.1938 (Soviétique) H.V.A.P. (1942) 205 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 M.1938 (Soviétique) A.P.D.S. (1945) 261 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 M.1938 (Soviétique) H.E.A.T. (1944) 200 mm

Les Finlandais bought armaments de la Suède pendant tous les guerres. Western powers, et the USA sold canons pendant la Guerre d'Hiver, et additional shipments continued well into 1940. L'Allemagne sold no weapons à la Finlande pendant la Guerre d'Hiver, honoring la traité de non-agression germano-soviétique. Arms shipments allemands d'équipement français et britannique capturé began in Août of 1940, followed by canons d'assaut StuG. 40 Ausf. G en 1943. Chars Panzer IV Ausf. J allemands were sent to Finland just days before the country changed sides en 1944. These véhicules were subsequently deployed contre le forces allemandes on the Lapland front, pushing the Wehrmacht back into Norway. L'Armée Finlandaise was very adept at recycling obsolete et captured equipment, much of which was d'origine soviétique.

Andy Reid
Sources: Harri Anttonen; Janne Kemppi; Panssarimuseo

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Figurines Finlandaises de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale