Armes Antichar Italiennes

Types de Projectiles et leur Capacité de Pénétration de Blindage

Automitrailleuse Italienne Autoblindo AB40

Automitrailleuse Fiat/Spa AB40 Autoblindo equipped avec deux mitrailleuses de 8 mm. The RAFM model is de la collection de Patrick Storto. Versions tardifs de ce véhicule sported canons de 20 mm L.65 Breda (AB41) ou de 47 mm L.32 Fiat (AB43).

The table lists armour penetration values for canons italiens at 0 to 100 meters range et 0 degrees inclination of armour. Dates indicate the year when a particular shell type entered production, not necessarily the year of availability to combat units. New shell types would take several months to reach the troops at the front, some favoured units receiving the new shells more quickly than others. Andrew Mark Reid is the author of Panzergranate, a set of miniature wargame rules using carefully researched gunnery data to simulate armour penetration results.

Arme Projectile Pénétration
8 mm Breda M37 HMG "K" Bullet 13 mm
Carro Veloce L3/33 et L3/35 had twin 8 mm Breda MGs. Apparently, there was even a version of the L3 Tankette avec a roof-mounted 45 mm Brixia mortar in addition to the twin MGs. Le Brixia était un mortier automatique, de chargement par la culasse, et trigger-fired, avec a theoretical rate of fire of 25 to 30 rounds per minute.
8 mm Fiat (Revelli) M35 HMG "K" Bullet 13 mm
13.2 mm Breda M31 HMG A.P. 29 mm
Mounted on the Carro Veloce L3/38 Tankette.
14 mm Radom Fusil Antichar (Polonais) A.P.
20 mm S.18/100 Solothurn Canon Antichar A.P. 38 mm
Mounted on a variant of the Carro Veloce L3/35 Tankette.
20 mm L.65 Breda AA/AT-Gun A.P. 36 mm
Canon antichar de 20 mm L.77 Scotti A.P. 43 mm
Canon de char de 37 mm L.33 High Velocity A.P. (Carbon Steel) 42 mm
Armement principal du char léger Fiat 3000 M21, built in the 1920s. This was the first high velocity gun purposely built to destroy chars, tout les autres canons de chars et armes antichar were adaptations of naval, field ou anti-aircraft guns. It also started the move away from A.P.H.E. to Solid Shot. The performance may seem paltry when compared avec canons plus grands ou even low velocity canons de 47 mm, but a tank can carry more of the smaller 37 mm rounds, so logistics come into play here. As the average target tank carried only 8 to 14 mm of armour, this gun was the "88 mm" of its day. Canons de 20 mm et 25 mm also became popular during the 1930s, because Manganese Steel A.P. rounds improved the performance enough to allow weapons this small.
Canon de char de 37 mm L.40 Vickers-Terni A.P. 58 mm
Armement principal du char moyen Fiat/Ansaldo/Fossati M11/39. Le canon Vickers/Terni has a calculated performance of 58 mm at 0 to 100 meters range if modelled on the 37 mm L.45 PaK 35 gun. Modelled on the 2 pdr (40 mm L.52) britannique, penetration would be 60 mm, ou 55 mm if the Vickers 3 pdr (47 mm L.41) is used as the basis for the calculation.
Canon antichar de 37 mm L.45 (copie du PaK 35) A.P. 65 mm
Canon antichar de 37 mm L.54 Breda A.P. 78 mm
Canon de char de 47 mm L.32 Fiat 47/32 M37 A.P. (M.1935) 58 mm
Canon de char de 47 mm L.32 Fiat 47/32 M37 E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 112 mm
Armement principal du char moyen Fiat M13/40. Le canon de 47/32 was a self-loading weapon, avec a circular magazine tray attached to the turret ring. This gave the Fiat M13/40 the same high rate of fire as that of a véhicule avec a three-man turret crew. The Effeto Pronto shell had an unusual size for a hollow-charge, because 75 mm is regarded as the smallest practical size for an effective H.E.A.T. shell. Performance of the 47 mm Effeto Pronto shell would be slightly less than that of the 50 mm Bazooka round.
Canon antichar de 47 mm L.36 Breda 47/32 M35 A.P. (M.1935) 64 mm
Canon antichar de 47 mm L.36 Breda 47/32 M35 E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 112 mm
A licensed version du canon antichar Böhler autrichien, manufactured by Breda et supplied a l’armée italienne, finlandaise, et roumaine. An upgraded Modello 39 appeared shortly before the war, et there are pictures showing this weapon avec a gun shield. Nevertheless, many des canons Breda 47/32 M39 seem to have been deployed in combat without the shield. La version chasseur de chars du char léger L6/40, designated Carro Semovente L40, mounted the Breda 47/32 L.36 in an open-topped hull. Chars légers L6/40 were also converted to Porta Munizione L40 which carried 66 rounds of ammunition for the Semovente 90/53.
Canon de 47 mm L.44 da 47/40 A.P. 78 mm
Canon de 47 mm L.44 da 47/40 E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 112 mm
Armement principal du char moyen Fiat/Ansaldo/Fossati M15/42. There is a possibility that this gun is actually le canon antichar de 47 mm L.43 tchécoslovaque capturé par la Wehrmacht allemande, et which saw service as late as the 1944 Normandy campaign. Only three were used in Normandy, but, if les Allemands had enough of these canons in inventory, many more may have been passed on a l’armée italienne in previous years. If the 47/40 italien is indeed le 47 mm L.43 tchèque, its performance would be 86 mm at 0-100 metres.
Canon de 47 mm L.52 da 47/48 A.P. 93 mm
Canon de 47 mm L.52 da 47/48 E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 112 mm
65 mm L.17.7 Arsenal Turin 65/17 Mountain Gun A.P. 37 mm
65 mm L.17.7 Arsenal Turin 65/17 Mountain Gun E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 120 mm
Armement principal du char lourd Fiat 2000 de la Première Guerre mondiale, et still in service as an infantry support weapon de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. The gun was probably based on the 65 mm M.06 Schneider mountain gun.
75 mm L.25 Semovente da 75/18 S.P. Gun A.P. 59 mm
75 mm L.25 Semovente da 75/18 S.P. Gun E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 120 mm
Armement principal du Carro Semovente M40 et M42 da 75/18, un canon automoteur basé sur le char moyen M13/40. Period photos show these véhicules avec a variety of improvised protection consisting of spare track sections, et sandbags applied to supplement the flimsy armour of the M13/40. Ce canon is either the same as ou very similar to the 75 mm L.25 Schneider-Canet M.98/00 français de cavalerie.
75 mm L.30 Field Gun da 75/27 A.P. 71 mm
Armement principal de l’Autocanonne 75/27, une version portée du canon de campagne montée sur un camion SPA-35 italien. There also existed a Semovente da 75/27. The gun is supposed to be a copy du canon de campagne de 75 mm L.30 Krupp M.1906 allemand, which in turn may have been inspired by the canon de campagne M.1897 Puteaux français.
75 mm L.36.3 Puteaux M.1897 Field Gun A.P. 90 mm
75 mm L.36.3 Puteaux M.1897 Field Gun E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 120 mm
Canons de campagne de 75 mm italiens would normally employ the effeto pronto shell against static targets like pillboxes et bunkers. With a few exceptions, comme le 25 pounder britannique, les canons de campagne were not equipped avec telescopic sights which would have facilitated targeting a moving véhicule. The typical antichar firing procedure de l’artillerie de campagne involved sighting through the barrel, ready to load et fire a quick shot as soon as the target appeared.
75 mm L.36.6 Semovente da 75/32 A.P. 86 mm
Le canon de campagne de 75 mm L.36.6 Ansaldo was converted en canon antichar, et it was mounted on the inofficial 75/32 variant of the Semovente M41 75/18. The gun is either a copy of the canon de campagne de 75 mm L.36.6 Schneider M.1914 français ou it may be a Schneider export en inventaire italienne.
Canon de char de 75 mm L.38 Breda 75/34 A.P. 90 mm
Canon de char de 75 mm L.38 Breda 75/34 E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 120 mm
Armement principal du char lourd Carro Armato Pesante Fiat/Ansaldo P40, et du Semovente 75/34 basée sur caisses M42 et M43.
75 mm L.50? Breda 75/46 M.34 Canon Antichar A.P. 115 mm
75 mm L.50? Breda 75/46 M.34 Canon Antichar E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 120 mm
Armement principal du Semovente M43 da 75/46, une variante allemande combining canons et véhicules italiens capturés. The confirmed range test performance of the A.P. round fired by the Breda 75/46 is surprisingly low compared avec le canon antichar de 75 mm L.48 PaK 39 allemand ou la copie roumaine du même arme de 75 mm Resita, both of which penetrate 144 mm of homogeneous armour. A probable explanation is that the Breda 75/46 entered service too late in the war to have dedicated ammunition production set up for it. Shorter 75/34 cartridges may have been used in the interim period, et their smaller explosive charge would explain the lack of performance. The 75/46 M.34 appears to have been based on an obsolete anti-aircraft gun of WW1 vintage, possibly the canon antiaérienne de 75 mm Puteaux français.
88 mm L.59 A.P. 206 mm
88 mm L.59 A.P.C.R. 260 mm
A modification of the 90 mm L.58 which fired available obus de 88 mm allemands. If the modification was done après l’armistice italien de Septembre 1943, these canons were probably used par unités italiennes which remained loyal aux Allemands.
90 mm L.58 Semovente da 90/53 A.P. 206 mm
The 90 mm L.58 was mounted sur chasseurs de chars Semovente M41 da 90/53 italiens. The véhicule used only the lower hull of the M13/40 tank. Le conducteur sat in a well at the front of the véhicule, he was exposed. The gun crew rode on the véhicule, et stood behind the unshielded gun when in action. The véhicule carried only six rounds of ammunition, et it was accompanied into battle by a Porta Munizione L40 which transported another 66 rounds. Semovente 90/53 tank destroyers were used in action during the Invasion of Sicily en 1943, et they were either captured intact ou knocked out au course de la campagne. It would be very simple to convert an ESCI M13/40 to this véhicule using the Airfix 88 mm FlaK gun. Pictures of the Semovente 90/53 can be found in "The Encyclopaedia of Military Véhicules" published en 1980. This new information means that canons de 88 mm L.71 italiens did not exist, et that pictures avec this reference actually show 90 mm L.58 FlaK guns. The two weapons are almost identical, et the 90 mm L.58 was sometimes refered to comme 88 italien.
100 mm L.22 Field Gun 100/17 A.P. 75 mm
The 100/17 is probably a copy of the 100 mm L.22 Skoda field gun.
102 mm L.39 Autocanonne 102/35 A.P. 157 mm
Mounted on the Milmart (Naval Blackshirt) Autocanonne 102/35, et used avec great success at the battle of Bir el Gobi by the Giovanni Fascisti (Young Fascists) Regiment.
102 mm L.44 Semovente da 102/40 A.P. 178 mm
Mounted on the Semovente Tipo-102, a six-wheeled armoured Tank Destroyer. The véhicule may have been based on the camion Dovunque, it had a well sloped front et an open fighting compartment. A variant of the same véhicule mounted the 90/53 gun, but it is not certain that either of them were used in combat.
105 mm L.28 Semovente da 105/25 A.P. 76 mm
105 mm L.28 Semovente da 105/25 E.P. «Effeto Pronto» 121 mm
Armement principal du canon automoteur Semovente M43 105/25. The weapon may be a licensed version of du obusier de 105 mm L.28 allemand mounted in StuH 42 assault howitzer.
120 mm L.48 Semovente da 120/44 A.P. 228 mm
Armement principal du canon automoteur Semovente 120/44 which may not have progressed beyond the prototype stage. The véhicule was similar to the Semovente M41 90/53.
149 mm L.44 Semovente da 149/40 A.P. 259 mm
Armement principal du canon automoteur Carro Semovente Fiat/Ansaldo da 149/40. The weapon may be un canon tchèque licensed.

There is a noticeable difference between official désignations italiens like that of the Breda 47/32 et the actual 47 mm L.36 measurements of the same weapon. Apparently, l’armée italienne used a system of barrel measurement which accounted only for the rifled section of the barrel, ignoring the smoothbore section against which the cartridge rested, but which did contribute to the overall velocity of the shell. Why this measuring system was used, is not immediately apparent. L’armée française measured its artillery in this way in WW1, but adopted the standard European measurement later. Les désignations italiens de la longueur du tube conveniently disguise the origins of several of the weapons listed above, et this may have been intented. Upon closer inspection, we have been able to match several canons italiens to the weapons of other nations they were based on.

Many canons et véhicules italiens were captured par les forces alliés en Afrique du Nord, et they were used by a number of Commonwealth formations. Equipment captured at Tobruk en 1940 was transferred à l’Armée Grecque, but it did not perform well when the Wehrmacht invaded the Balkans.

Andy Reid

Questions Fréquents

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Figurines et Maquettes Italiennes de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale