Armes Antichar Roumaines

Types de Projectiles et leur Capacité de Pénétration de Blindage

Caractéristiques des Canons Antichar Roumains de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale

La Roumanie used a variety of équipement autrichien, tchèque, français, allemand, italien, et soviétique capturé during the war. Small arms et certain canons were produced en Roumanie, under license, but most of the véhicules were imported de la Tchécoslovaquie et l'Allemagne. Le chasseur de chars shown here is a T-60 Tacam, mounting un canon de 76,2 mm L.54 ZIS-3 soviétique capturé sur le chassis d'un char léger T-60 soviétique. Les figurines des soldats roumains sont old Airfix Afrikakorps soldiers. Tarps et netting stowed on the véhicule were made from tissue paper et gauze bandage. Similar versions of the Tacam were based on the char léger Lt. Vz. 35 tchèque which was designated char léger R-2 en service roumaine. Le véhicule was sprayed avec a mixture of Tamiya acrylic paint, using 80% kaki et 20% blanc. We used the Jim Gordon technique on Weathering Small Scale AFVs.

The table lists armour penetration values des canons roumains at 0 to 100 meters range et 0 degrees inclination of armour. Dates indicate the year when a particular shell type entered production, not necessarily the year of availability to combat units. New shell types would take several months to reach the troops at the front, some favoured units receiving the new shells more quickly than others. Andrew Mark Reid is the author of Panzergranate, a set of miniature wargame rules using carefully researched gunnery data to simulate armour penetration results.

Arme Projectile Pénétration
20 mm L.55 KwK 30/38 A.P.H.E. (Pz.Gr.) 24 mm
20 mm L.55 KwK 30/38 A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 31 mm
20 mm L.55 KwK 30/38 A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 54 mm
Mounted in Sd.Kfz. 222 Panzerspähwagen supplied by the Wehrmacht en 1944.
37 mm L.32.3 Skoda 70/37 BA Infantry Gun A.P. (Manganese Steel) 47 mm
The Skoda 70/37 infantry gun had a 70 mm L.11.4 gun barrel mounted on the carriage, et a spare 37 mm L.32.3 barrel which could be inserted into the larger barrel if obus antichar had to be fired. The BA version of the gun had a central spike which was hammered into the ground to give the gun 360 degrees traverse.
37.2 mm L.40 Skoda A.3 A.P.H.E. (Pz.Gr. 34 (t)) 45 mm
37.2 mm L.40 Skoda A.3 A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 58 mm
37.2 mm L.40 Skoda A.3 A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 70 mm
Armement principal du char léger LT vz. 35, designated char léger R-2 en service roumain.
37,2 mm L.47 Skoda A.7 KwK (t) A.P.H.E. (Pz.Gr. 34 (t)) 50 mm
37,2 mm L.47 Skoda A.7 KwK (t) A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 69 mm
37,2 mm L.47 Skoda A.7 KwK (t) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 84 mm
Mounted in 50 obsolete Pz.Kpfw. 38 (t) supplied by the Wehrmacht en 1943.
47 mm L.35.8 Breda 47/32 M35 AT Gun (Italien) A.P. 64 mm
47 mm L.39.4 Böhler Canon Antichar (Autrichien) A.P. 71 mm
47 mm L.53 Puteaux Canon Antichar (Français) A.P. 95 mm
Les divisions d'infanterie roumains had only une batterie antichar de six canons antichar de 47 mm, which proved inadequate against chars T-34 et KV soviétiques.
75 mm L.24 StuK 37 & KwK 37 A.P.H.E. (K. Gr.rot. Pz.) 50 mm
75 mm L.24 StuK 37 & KwK 37 A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 57 mm
75 mm L.24 StuK 37 & KwK 37 A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 76 mm
75 mm L.24 StuK 37 & KwK 37 H.C. (Igr. 38 Hl/A) 90 mm
75 mm L.24 StuK 37 & KwK 37 H.C. (Igr. 38 Hl/B) 96 mm
75 mm L.24 StuK 37 & KwK 37 H.C. (Igr. 38 Hl/C) 128 mm
Mounted in Pz.Kpfw. III Ausf. N, et Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf. D support véhicules. Ten each of these were supplied by the Wehrmacht to strengthen la 1re Division Blindée roumaine, most of them were lost at Stalingrad en 1943.
75 mm L.36.3 PaK 97/38 (f) A.P. (Pz.Gr.) 90 mm
75 mm L.36.3 PaK 97/38 (f) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 128 mm
Compagnies antichar roumaines received six canons antichar 75 mm L.36.3 PaK 97/38 (f) en Octobre 1942, in addition to their obsolete canons antichar de 47 mm. L'armée française upgraded many of its old canons de 75 mm Puteaux by adding pneumatic tires au course de la mobilisation de 1938 et 1940. These canons were designated M.1897/1938 et M.1897/1940 en service français. Captured weapons were fitted avec a PaK 38 carriage et a T.R. breech by the Wehrmacht. If obus de A.P.C.R. allemands were later fired from this weapon, the recul springing system had to have been strengthened to accept the increased recul. Like its predecessor, le canon de 75 mm PaK 50 (f), this upgraded version n'a pas de frein de bouche, although it may have been fitted avec proper sights et other minor design improvement. The weapon was issued to Axis allies deployed on the eastern front. After 1942, the 75 mm L.36.3 PaK could not have been much use in combat.
75 mm L.36.6 Schneider M.1914 Field Gun A.P. 93 mm
75 mm L.46 PaK 40 A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 149 mm
75 mm L.46 PaK 40 A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 176 mm
Very few of these effective weapons were made available by the Wehrmacht, to counter chars T-34 et chars lourds KV soviétiques. Divisions d'infanterie et de chasseurs alpins received une seconde batterie antichar de six canons antichar de 75 mm PaK 40 en 1944. Equipment losses were replaced by canons antichar de 75 mm Resita en 1945.
75 mm L.48 KwK 39 & PaK 39 A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 144 mm
75 mm L.48 KwK 39 & PaK 39 A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 172 mm
Mounted in the StuG III Ausf. G, et Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf. H.
75 mm L.48? Resita A.P. (Pz.Gr. 39) 144 mm
75 mm L.48? Resita A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 172 mm
Possibly a copy of the canon ancithar de 75 mm L.48 PaK 39 allemand for reasons of logistics. Obus de 75 mm A.P et A.P.C.R. allemands were readily available in the theater of operation. These shells were used by all German 75 mm L.18, L.24, L.43, et L.48 guns, including those mounted in the StuG III.G, Pz.Kpfw. III.N, Pz.Kpfw. IV.D et Pz.Kpfw. IV.H which l'armée roumaine received de l'Allemagne en 1943 et 1944. Penetration values for the 75 mm Resita would be similar to the 75 mm PaK 39.
76,2 mm L.54 PaK 54 (r) A.P. (Pz.Gr.) 133 mm
76,2 mm L.54 PaK 54 (r) A.P.C.R. (Pz.Gr. 40) 193 mm
Canons russes, et large stocks of ammunition were captured during the campaign, et subsequently employed by Axis forces. L'armée roumaine used the weapon to convert chars légers R-2 tchèques, et chars légers T-60 soviétique capturés en chasseurs de chars R-2 Tacam et T-60 Tacam.

Forces roumaines were not equipped well enough to withstand the onslaught des formations blindées soviétiques deploying increasing numbers of sophisticated chars T-34 against them. Some efforts were made to produce armes antichar comme le canon antichar Resita de 75 mm locally, et to make use d'équipement soviétique capturé. After Stalingrad, les forces Soviétiques avançant vigorously contested the possession of the battlefield, practically eliminating any opportunity for capture. In addition, mechanical breakdowns et battle damage would result in irretrievable equipment losses among les forces roumaines. Faced avec its own supply problems, la Wehrmacht allemande could spare only limited numbers of canons antichar, et some obsolete véhicules avec which to rebuild la division roumaine.

Andy Reid

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Figurines Roumaines de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale