Armes Antichar Russes Soviétiques

Types de Projectiles et leur Capacité de Pénétration de Blindage

Caractéristiques des Canons Antichar Soviétiques de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, Pénétration de Blindage

One of two 152 mm ML-20 Howitzers displayed au Mémorial de l'Armée Soviétique à Berlin. The memorial is three minutes walking distance de la Porte de Brandebourg, heading towards the Siegessäule monument. The memorial was built soon après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, et it ended up in West Berlin when the Wall divided the city. Following la réunification allemande the memorial fell into serious disrepair, et the area was closed off. The howitzers et les deux chars T-34 were in bad condition: the paint had faded et was flaking off. Apparently, le Mémorial de l'Armée Soviétique is undergoing repair, et the military equipment will be restored.

The table lists armour penetration values des armes antichar de l'infanterie soviétique as well as canons soviétiques at 0 to 100 meters range et 0 degrees inclination of armour. Dates indicate the year when a particular shell type entered production, not necessarily the year of availability to combat units. New shell types would take several months to reach the troops at the front, some favoured units receiving the new shells more quickly than others. Andrew Mark Reid is the author of Panzergranate, a set of miniature wargame rules using carefully researched gunnery data to simulate armour penetration results.

Fusils Antichar Projectile Pénétration
14,5 mm P.T.R.S. A.P. 38 mm
14,5 mm P.T.R.D. A.P. 38 mm
The P.T.R.D. is a semi-automatic version du fusil antichar P.T.R.S. Both weapons were also employed for long-range sniping out to 3000 ou 4000 metres, using a modified telescopic sight. Typical crew consisted of two men, gunner et loader. The loader was armed avec a PPSh SMG for close defence. Many photos of this weapon show smoke grenades et conventional grenades at the ready nearby on the ground. In fact, les fusils antichar soviétiques are the most common weapon seen in period photos, et it is surprising that only Revell offers infanterie soviétique armed avec one of these weapons.
Engins Antichar, Lance-Roquettes Projectile Pénétration
Dog Mine Explosive (Wracking) 20 mm (Approx.)
Le chien anti-char russe is described in The Book of Heroic Failures Volume I. The weapon was supposed to work as follows: The dogs were kept hungry, et they were only fed underneath running chars, to familiarize them avec the high noise level. The dogs were then trained to get used to carrying a large weight of explosives (T.N.T.) strapped to their backs et sides. In operation, the dogs would be taken to the battlefield, et released when chars enemy were clearly visible. The dogs would run underneath the enemy véhicules, expecting to be fed, et the device would be set off avec catastrophic results for the tank, et the unsuspecting animal, of course.

In actual use, the device did not work as planned. The dogs had been trained underneath chars soviétiques, et they only expected to be fed there, not underneath enemy véhicules. As a result, when they were first deployed en 1941, the dogs immediately made a beeline for the nearest véhicules soviétiques. Apparently, an entire tank division had to be withdrawn from the combat zone until the infantry had shot all the uncontrollable mine dogs. The device remained in use, et sources soviétiques claim that several chars enemy were destroyed in this way at the Bataille de Kursk. Sources allemandes dispute this claim, although it is known that dogs in the combat zone were shot on sight if the use of dog mines was suspected.

V.P.G.S. 40 Grenade H.C. (Munroe) 30 mm
The V.P.G.S. 40 was a stick grenade. It is not certain if this grenade used a chaped charge ou if it was a chemical thermide grenade designed to burn its way through armour plate. The former is more likely, et its relatively poor performance may be explained by the poor quality d'explosifs soviétiques.
R.P.G. 40 Rifle Grenade H.C. (Munroe) 30 mm
Une version à fusil de grenade V.P.G.S. 40, it had a maximum projected range of 60 metres.
V.P.R.S. Grenade H.C. (Munroe) 76 mm
La grenade V.P.R.S. soviétique required a very strong individual to throw it, the device resembles a large paint can avec a handle attached underneath.
50 mm Bazooka (U.S.) H.C. (Munroe) 119 mm
Les forces soviétiques received a Lend-Lease shipment of American Bazookas en 1942, some of which were captured by the Wehrmacht, leading to the development des lance-roquettes antichar Panzerschreck et Panzerfaust. Les lance-roquettes Bazooka et Panzerschreck sont des armes de missiles which produce a less dangerous backblast than the Panzerfaust, although the backblast is still noticeable enough to reveal the firing position. Rocket projectors can be fired from enclosed spaces avec minimal risk to the operator, et there is enough historic evidence to suggest that this was done in combat.
Faustpatrone/Panzerfaust 50 Klein (Allemand) H.C. (Munroe) 153 mm
Faustpatrone/Panzerfaust 100 Klein (Allemand) H.C. (Munroe) 219 mm
Les troupes soviétiques often used captured Panzerfaust launchers in combat. Recoilless weapons like the Panzerfaust, et la copie russe RPG-1 of the same, had a tremendous backblast which made it nearly impossible to fire the weapon from buildings, bunkers, et similarly enclosed positions. In the heat of battle, this important safety instruction was often ignored, resulting in many pertes accidentelles among the operators. In addition, the noticeable backblast would draw enemy return fire to the firing position.
Canons de Char et Antichar Projectile Pénétration
20 mm L.107 T.N.S.H. (ShVak.) A.P.H.E. (1941) 28 mm
20 mm L.107 T.N.S.H. (ShVak.) H.V.A.P. (1942) 60 mm
25 mm L.91.6 Flak A.P.H.E. (1941) 57 mm
25 mm L.91.6 Flak H.V.A.P. (1942) 74 mm
Canon de char de 37 mm L.33 Hotchkiss A.P. 34 mm
Canon de char de 37 mm L.33 Hotchkiss A.P.H.E. 28 mm
Un canon français, not adopted by l'armée française. Canons Hotchkiss de 30 mm L.33 were exported en Russie, to be mounted on chars légers T-18, et automitrailleuses BA-27. The T-18 was similar to the Renault FT-17 français, only faster et better armed. Chars T-18 were to be used primarily for training purposes, but enormous losses des chars légers T-26 meant that the T-18 was pressed into combat service as an char d'assaut. L'automitrailleuse BA-27 mounted a T-18 turret. Le canon de 37 mm L.33 était aussi l'armement principal du char léger T-23, une version plus longue et plus grande du T-18, from the early 1930s, et le char léger T-26.B bi-tourelle totif which replaced it. Le char rapide BT-2 avec twin turrets also used le canon de 37 mm L.33, mais le char rapide BT-3 was upgraded au canon de 37 mm L.45 dans une seule tourelle.
37 mm L.33 T.G. A.P.H.E. 30 mm
37 mm L.33 T.G. H.V.A.P. 37 mm
37 mm L.45 M.1935 A.P.H.E. 42 mm
37 mm L.45 M.1935 H.V.A.P. 51 mm
A copy du canon antichar de 37 mm PaK 35 allemand.
37 mm L.74 Flak A.P.H.E. (1941) 69 mm
37 mm L.74 Flak H.V.A.P. (1942) 88 mm
45 mm L.46 PTP M.1937 Canon Antichar A.P.H.E. (1941) 52 mm
45 mm L.46 PTP M.1937 Canon Antichar H.V.A.P. (1942) 64 mm
45 mm L.46 PTP M.1937 Canon Antichar A.P.D.S. (1945) 96 mm
Le canon de 45 mm L.46 était l'armement principal des chars T-26, T-50, T-70, BT-5, et BT-7 soviétiques, as well as les automitrailleuses BA-10 et BA-32.
45 mm L.66 PTP M.1941 Canon Antichar A.P.H.E. (1941) 74 mm
45 mm L.66 PTP M.1941 Canon Antichar H.V.A.P. (1942) 102 mm
45 mm L.66 PTP M.1941 Canon Antichar A.P.D.S. (1945) 138 mm
57 mm L.73 ZIS-2 A.T.G./T.G. A.P.H.E. (1941) 104 mm
57 mm L.73 ZIS-2 A.T.G./T.G. H.V.A.P. (1942) 128 mm
57 mm L.73 ZIS-2 A.T.G./T.G. A.P.D.S. (1945) 194 mm
76,2 mm L.16.5 M.1927 I.G. A.P.H.E. (Any Year) 38 mm
76,2 mm L.26 M.1930 Field Gun A.P.H.E. (Any Year) 58 mm
Une version modernisée du Czarist canon de campagne de 76,2 mm L.26 M.1902 Putilov, it was used comme armement principal du char BT-8 et T-28.B.
Canon de 76,2 mm L.30.5 M.1934 A.P.H.E. (1941) 69 mm
Canon de 76,2 mm L.30.5 M.1934 H.V.A.P. (1942) 75 mm
Canon de 76,2 mm L.30.5 M.1934 H.E.A.T. (1944) 75 mm
Canon de char de 76,2 mm L.42 F-34 A.P.H.E. (1941) 81 mm
Canon de char de 76,2 mm L.42 F-34 H.V.A.P. (1942) 104 mm
Canon de char de 76,2 mm L.42 F-34 H.E.A.T. (1944) 75 mm
Canon de char de 76,2 mm L.42 F-34 A.P.D.S. (1945) 149 mm
This gun was known as ZIS-5 when mounted in chars lourds KV-1.
76,2 mm L.54 ZIS-3 A.T.G. M.42 A.P.H.E. (1941) 104 mm
76,2 mm L.54 ZIS-3 A.T.G. M.42 H.V.A.P. (1942) 133 mm
76,2 mm L.54 ZIS-3 A.T.G. M.42 A.P.D.S. (1945) 191 mm
76,2 mm L.54 D-6 A.A. Gun A.P.H.E. (1941) 104 mm
76,2 mm L.54 D-6 A.A. Gun H.V.A.P. (1942) 133 mm
76,2 mm L.54 D-6 A.A. Gun A.P.D.S. (1945) 191 mm
85 mm L.54 D-7 A.A.G./T.G. A.P.H.E. (1941) 130 mm
85 mm L.54 D-7 A.A.G./T.G. H.V.A.P. (1942) 168 mm
85 mm L.54 D-7 A.A.G./T.G. A.P.D.S. (1945) 240 mm
100 mm L.56 D-10 A.A.G./T.G. A.P.H.E. (1941) 158 mm
100 mm L.56 D-10 A.A.G./T.G. H.V.A.P. (1942) 205 mm
100 mm L.56 D-10 A.A.G./T.G. A.P.D.S. (1945) 261 mm
100 mm L.59.9 BS-3 M.1944 Canon Antichar A.P.H.E. 169 mm
100 mm L.59.9 BS-3 M.1944 Canon Antichar H.V.A.P. 219 mm
100 mm L.59.9 BS-3 M.1944 Canon Antichar A.P.D.S. 279 mm
Le canon antichar M.1944 was developed from the canon antiaérien D-10 listed above, et it may have been the 100 mm L.59.9 shown here.
Canon de 122 mm L.46 D-25T M.1938 A.P.H.E. (1941) 145 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 D-25T M.1938 H.V.A.P. (1942) 205 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 D-25T M.1938 A.P.D.S. (1945) 261 mm
Canon de 122 mm L.46 D-25T M.1938 H.E.A.T. (1944) 200 mm
152 mm L.28.8 ML-20 Howitzer M.1930 A.P.H.E. (1941) 73 mm
152 mm L.28.8 ML-20 Howitzer M.1930 C.P.H.E. (1941) 124 mm
152 mm L.28.8 ML-20 Howitzer M.1930 H.V.A.P. (1942) 102 mm
152 mm L.28.8 ML-20 Howitzer M.1930 A.P.D.S. (1945) 131 mm
152 mm L.28.8 ML-20 Howitzer M.1930 H.E.A.T. (1944) 200 mm

Les canons soviétiques suffered from very poor propellant. The calculated propellant constant is not much greater than that for gun powder.

Andy Reid

Questions Fréquents

Pour plus d'informations, veuillez contacter les éditeurs de la revue Military Miniatures Magazine au Miniatures Forum.

Figurines de l'Armée Soviétique