Char Britannique A.27M Cromwell
Cruiser Tank Mk. VIII

Char Britannique A.27 Cromwell, Cruiser Tank Mk. VIII

The Cromwell tank, named after the Première révolution anglaise leader Oliver Cromwell, was designed to replace the Crusader, Cruiser Tank Mk. VI, which was fast becoming obsolete. Designs of the new cruiser tank were submitted in early 1941, et rushed into production as the A.24 Cavalier, Cruiser Tank Mk. VII. The Cavalier was an unsuccesful tank design, which suffered primarily from its underpowered Liberty engine. A more powerful engine was designed, based on the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine used in Spitfire fighter aircraft, et the cruiser tank design was modified to accommodate it. Since Rolls-Royce was fully committed to the production of its Merlin aircraft engine, the manufacture of the Meteor tank engine passed to the Rover Car Company. The initial chars A.27, designated A.27L Centaur, received the antiquated Liberty engine, until the production lines at Rover were made ready to produce the Meteor engine. Production of the A.27M Cromwell began in Janvier 1943, et the véhicule first saw action in Juin 1944 during Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy.

Maquettes disponibles

  • A.27M Cromwell III, 1/76 Crusader Models CMB02
  • A.27M Cromwell, 1/32 Airfx
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1/35 Tamiya 35221
  • A.27M Cromwell IV (11e Division Blindée), 1/50 Corgi Toys CC60601
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1/48 Tamiya 32528
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1:72 Armourfast 99013
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1:76 Airfix 02328
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.C, 1/76 Cromwell Models A18
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.D, 1/72 Revell 03123
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.D, 1/76 MMS 906
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.D, 1/76 S&S
  • A.27M Cromwell, 20 mm Raventhorpe RTR72
  • A.27M Cromwell Close Support (95 mm), 20 mm Raventhorpe RTR74
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1/285 GHQ UK20
  • A.27M Cromwell, 1/300 Heroic & Ros B018
  • A.27M Cromwell VI (Western Europa, 1945), 1/50 Corgi Toys CC60607
  • A.27M Cromwell VI (VE Day Series, Europe 1945), 1/50 Corgi Toys HC60609
  • A.27M Cromwell VI.D, 1/76 MMS 909
    • A.27M Cromwell VI Close Support, Conversion Kit, 1/76 Vac-U-Cast C-116
  • A.27M Cromwell VII (5th RTR, Holland 1945), 1/50 Corgi Toys CC60604
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1/60 S&S
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1/76 MMS 924
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1/76 Crusader Models CMB03a
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1/87 WTD 47
  • A.27M Cromwell VII.F, 1/76 Cromwell Models A21
  • A.27M Cromwell VIII, 1/76 Crusader Models CMB03b

The Cromwell was faster et had a lower profile than the Sherman tank. However, while the Cromwell’s armour plate was of equivalent thickness to that of the Sherman, the plate was aligned vertically et provided less effective armour protection as a result. Because of its great speed, the Cromwell was used in divisional armoured reconnaissance regiments. The 7e Division Blindée was fully equipped avec chars Cromwell.

Le canon de 75 mm du Cromwell was an adaptation du canon antichar QF 6 pounder, designed to fire the same ammunition as the Sherman tank en service britannique. Le canon de 75 mm avait a significantly lower muzzle velocity than the canon antichar QF 6 pounder ou 17 pounder, but it could fire a very effective HE anti-personnel round.

Of the 4016 chars A.27 produced, 1408 were Centaurs et 2608 Cromwells. An additional 375 Centaur hulls were built to be equipped avec anti-aircraft turrets, but only 95 of these were actually completed, because the Allies enjoyed air superiority during the latter part of the war et there was little need for dedicated anti-aircraft véhicules.

Spécifications Techniques

  • A.27M Cromwell
  • Type: Cruiser Tank Mk. VIII
  • Moteur: Rolls-Royce Meteor V12 petrol 447 kw (600 hp)
  • Suspension: Christie
  • Vitesse: 64 km/h on roads
  • Autonomie: 280 km
  • Longueur: 6350 mm
  • Largeur: 2908 mm
  • Hauteur: 2833 mm
  • Poids: 27966 kg
  • Armement: Canon Ordnance QF 10 pounder de 75 mm,
    7,92 mm Besa turret et hull machine gun
  • Armour Penetration at 0–100 m
    • 115 mm using A.P./T. (1943)
    • 124 mm using A.P.C.B.C. (1944)
  • Équipage: chef de char, conducteur, tireur, chargeur, radio-pourvoyeur
  • Production: 1943 – (2.608 units)

Déploiement Historique

  • Armée Britannique, 1944–1950
    • 2e Bataillon Welch Guards, Guards Division Blindée
    • 10e Mounted Rifle Regiment, 1re Division Blindée Polonaise
    • 6e Airborne Reconnaissance Regiment (RAC), 6th Airborne Division
    • 8e King’s Royal Hussards Irlandais, 7e Division Blindée
    • 1st Royal Tank Regiment, 7e Division Blindée
    • 5th Royal Tank Regiment, 7e Division Blindée
    • 4th County of London Yeomanry (to Juillet 1944), 7e Division Blindée
    • 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards (from Juillet 1944), 7th Armd. Div.
    • 2nd Northamptonshire Yeomanry (to 8 Août 1944), 11e Division Blindée
    • 15/19th Royal Kings Hussars (from 8 Août 1944), 11e Division Blindée
  • Armée Israélienne, 1948–1952

The Cromwell was superceded by the A.34 Comet heavy cruiser tank which entered service in Décembre of 1944. Chars A.27M Cromwell britanniques last served in the Guerre de Corée en 1950. They were used for training purposes thereafter, et many ended up as hard targets on firing ranges. In terms of armoured véhicule design, the Cromwell et the similarly designed Comet were a step back: both had vertical armour plate like the Tiger I tank, rather than the more protective sloped plate of the Panther, T-34 medium tank, ou A.16 Crusader.

Questions Fréquents

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Figurines Britanniques de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale