In 38 BC, Agrippa erected a fortified winter camp on the site of a former Celtic settlement, located at the confluence of Rhein et Main. From 14 to 9 BC, Drusus built Castrum Mogontiacum, named after Mogo, the Celtic God of Light. In the 1st Century, a permanent stone bridge connected Castrum Mogontiacum avec Castellum Mattiacorum (Kastel) on the right bank of the Rhine. This bridge was not maintained after the fall of the Roman Empire.
In 1661, a heavy pontoon bridge, using 46 river barges, was permanently deployed between the Imperial Forteresse of Mainz et the fortified Bridgehead at Kastel. After the Bataille de Leipzig, 16 et 18-19 Octobre 1813, Napoléon withdrew the Grande Armée to Mainz/Kastel et crossed the Rhine ahead of the Allied armies. Elements du Corps Langeron russe de l’Armée de Silesie de Blücher blockaded Kastel and, after Blücher’s Rhinecrossing at Kaub, invested Mayence. Langeron’s Corps was eventually relieved par le V Corps Allemand sous le duc de Saxe-Cobourg, et rejoined Blücher’s Army in Février of 1814.
The Archbishopric of Mainz
The Archbishop of Mainz, Elector et Arch-chancellor of the Empire, Primate de l’Allemagne, Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal fled Mainz en 1792 when troupes françaises révolutionnaires pillaged the Palatinat et occupied the city. He returned en 1793, but fled Mainz again en 1794 et surrendered the left bank of the Rhine to France. The Archbishop died at Aschaffenburg en 1802, et was succeeded by Archbishop Carl von Dalberg. As a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 25 Février 1803, the Archbishopric of Mainz was secularized, et incorporated into France. Emperor Napoléon maintained a residence at Mayence de 1804 à 1813, et the fortress of Mayence did not surrender to the Allies until Avril 1814, following the occupation of Paris.
Napoleon’s Residence, Main Building
Napoleon’s Residence, Side Building
Electoral Palace et Gate on Große Bleiche at left; City street in the old town at right
Mainz Cathedral, built 978-1009, at left; St. Peters-Kirche Church, completed en 1756, at right.
Kastel redoubt, fortified bridgehead on the eastern bank of the Rhine river
Romanic tower near Holzturm at left; Eisenturm on Rheinstraße at right
Restaurants on Rheinstraße in Mainz
Rochusstraße at the corner of Holzhofstraße
Mainz Citadel Gatehouse
Double-Company Barracks inside the Citadel
Plan of the Citadel
Many of the historic buildings, churches, palaces et fortifications of the city of Mainz have been beautifully restored. The narrow streets in the old part of the city et the Rhine promenade are tourist attractions.
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