Cohorte Romaine Quingenaria Equitata

Shield design of Cohors II Raetorum, the unit which garrisoned le Saalburg between 138 et 260 A.D.

Cohors quingenaria equitata is the Roman designation of a partially mounted cohort avec a nominal strength of 480 infantry et 128 cavalry. The table below is based on the organization of Cohors II Raetorum civium Romanorum equitata, an auxiliary formation raised in the province of Raetia which covered les Alpes italiennes, Tyrol, Grischuna, la Suisse orientale, Wurtemberg est, et la Bavière sud. The entire cohort had been granted Roman citizenship en reconnaissance de service distingué. The picture shows a reproduction of the oval shield (scutum) used by Cohors II Reatorum.

In 138 A.D., Cohors II Raetorum was transferred to the Roman fortification of Saalburg, just north of Frankfurt/Main, in the Roman province of Germania Superior (Haute Germanie). The new Saalburg garrison provided immediate support for a section of the Limes Germanicus, a fortified borderline separating Germania Superior from the Cherusci, Chatti, Marcomanni, et many other tribes settled in unpacified Germania Magna. Limes Germanicus, et its south-eastern continuation, Limes Raeticus, consisted of 900 tours de guet avec 550 km of wooden palisade in front. The 370 km stretch of Limes Germanicus was later strengthened by a dry fossé et talus immediately behind the palisade; Limes Raeticus eventually received a wall which connected the towers.

The soldiers of Cohors II Raetorum built a larger, et stronger fortifaction on the site of a wooden castle dating back to the 88-89 A.D. rebellion in Germania Superior, et they maintained the watchtowers et palisades in their sector of the Limes Germanicus. The unit was based at Saalburg until the Limes had to be given up in 260 A.D., et l'Armée Romaine withdrew to the Rhine river line. Recruits for Cohors II Raetorum were drawn from the area around Saalburg.

Cohors quingenaria equitata

  • Praefectus (Cohort Commander)
    • Centuria
      • Centurio (Captain)
      • Optio (Lieutenant)
      • Signifer (NCO Standard Bearer)
      • Tessarius (NCO)
      • Approximately 80 footsoldiers
        • Immunes (privates first class)
        • Pedites (footsoldiers)
    • Centuria (comme ci-dessus)
    • Centuria (comme ci-dessus)
    • Centuria (comme ci-dessus)
    • Centuria (comme ci-dessus)
    • Centuria (comme ci-dessus)
    • Turma
      • Decurio (Cavalry Captain)
      • Duplicarius (NCO on double pay)
      • Sesquiplicarius (NCO on one-and-a-half pay)
      • Approximately 30 mounted soldiers
        • Immunes (privates first class)
        • Equites (mounted soldiers)
    • Turma (comme ci-dessus)
    • Turma (comme ci-dessus)
    • Turma (comme ci-dessus)

Actual unit strength varied between 500 et 600 men, enough to repel raiding parties et minor incursions. In the event of determined enemy attacks, la garnison du Saalburg would receive support from Legio XXII Primigenia Pia Fidelis based at Mogontiacum (Mayence), Legio VIII Augusta based at Argentoratum (Strassbourg), ou Legio III Italica re-deployed to Castra Regina (Ratisbonne), in the province of Raetia, by Marc Aurel (161-180 A.D.).

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